Those familiar with Sanskrit–even an introductory course is sufficient–are sure to know Bhartruhari mainly via reading several Subashitaas (noble sayings in verse form). Indeed, almost every other verse by Bhartruhari is a Subashitaa.
A King of Ujjain, Bhartruhari was the elder step brother of his more renowned sibling, Vikramaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving emperor who had everything at his disposal to a sage who gave us the immortal Shataka trilogy.
Bhartruhari was fiercely enamoured of his newly-wedded wife Pingala, a fact which caused Vikramaditya considerable anguish for the elder brother neglected his kingly duties preferring to spend his life in her arms. Pingala on her part conspired and had Vikramaditya thrown out of Ujjain.
A Brahmin once gave Bhartruhari a fruit that when eaten would increase the king’s lifespan. An infatuated Bhartruhari handed the fruit to his wife. Pingala in turn, preferred the intimate company of the chief horse-keeper to whom she gave the fruit. The horse-keeper was in love with a prostitute. In the end, the fruit found itself in the prostitute’s hands. To me, the prostitute emerges as a stellar character in this whole episode. She sensed the importance of the fruit, and found it fit to give it to the king whom she believed was a wise and just ruler barring his wifely obsession of course.
Bharturhari was counselling with his nobles when the prostitute praised the greatness of the fruit, told him she was unfit of such a lofty gift and gifted it to him. He ate the fruit and in a flash realized that it was the very fruit that he had lovingly gifted to Pingala. This singular incident made him realize the worthlessness of it all. He turned his back on worldly life and took to renunciation. The Niti Shataka has an extremely poignant verse that describes this state of Bhartruhari:
Yaam chintayaami satatam mayi saa viraktaa
Saapyanyamicchati janam sa janonyasaktah
Asmatkrute ca parishushyati kaachidanyaa
Dhik taam ca tam ca madanam ca imaam ca maam ca
(A very crude translation follows)
The One upon whom I meditate perpetually is detached from me but
(She) desires another and the Other (desires) yet another
Thus it goes always, this desire to always desire another
Fie on her, on him, on Madana (God of Love), on all this and fie on me too!
From King Bhartruhari, he became an ascetic, a tapasvi (the literal meaning of tapas is “to burn”) and from the ashes he burnt his passions into arose the immortal Shatakatraya: the Neeti, Shringara, and Vairagya Shatakas.
The Shringara Shataka deals mainly with various facets of erotic love; it goes to great lengths to describe nuances of feminine allurement, their behaviour in various stages of sensual arousal, and suchlike. Here’s a sample:
Prangma meti manaaganaagatrasam jaatabhilaasham tatah
Sabriyam tadanu shlathodyatamanupradhvastadhairyam punah
Premardra saprihniyanirbharah kridapragalbham tato
Ni shankaangvikarshnaadiksukham ramyam kulstree ratam
(My somewhat-liberal translation)
Noble women repulse sexual advances when dormant lies Desire
As Desire grows they loosen their limbs, shyness comes to the fore, they yawn repeatedly
Patience receding, they submit to the will of the partner, the noble women
At this critical pass,
Enjoy stroking, caressing, fondling, kissing and all other foreplay.
The reason Bhartruhari took time and effort to pen some absolutely erotic verses has its roots in the Indian conception of asethetics. A king himself who had enjoyed every kind of sensual pleasure, Bhartruhari took care not to trivialize any aspect of life and experience including the sensual. Indian art experience viewed as a whole is all-inclusive: nothing is shun-worthy. The end of sense-pleasure as various schools of philosophy state is self-realization, which is the end Shringara Shataka has in mind. As this verse testifies:
Dhaanyaasta aiv tarlaayatlochanaanaam
Drishtaakritim vikritimeti mano na yeshaam
(Crude translation follows)
Those alone are fortunate whose mind
Is not consumed by weakness to cast their eyes
On a pretty young damsel whose eyes twitter incessantly
(Who) is endowed with well-developed breasts and an alluring figure
And in the Vairagya Shataka he says there are only two ways one can live: indulge or take to asceticism. While this might seem extreme, Bhartruhari underscores the essential futility of trying simultaneously to indulge in relentless pleasure and desire eternal peace.
agre gitam sarasakavayaH paarshvayordakshiiNaatyaaH
pashchaalliilaavalayaraNita.n chaamaragraahiNiinaam.h .
yadyastveva.n kuru bhavarasaasvaadane lampaTatva.n
no chechchetaH pravisha sahasaa nirvikalpe samaadhau
If there be music playing in front of you, by your side expert poets from the South,
and behind you the courtesans waving fans and shaking their bracelets with a clinking
sound, then indulge unstintingly in these worldly pleasures. If not, O Mind! enter
the realm of beatitude devoid of all thoughts.
Bhartruhari’s trilogy encompasses almost every experience known to man and pours them forth in beautiful poetry. It provides philosophy to those interested in it, metrical delight to those who revel in it, morality to those who seek it… everybody unfailingly gains from it depending on what they look for. Ultimately, Bhartruhari’s name stands firm to this hour owing to this. His own verse, which soulfully describes the eternity of a true artist equally apply to him:
Jayanti te sukrrutino rasasidhdha kavishvaraha
Naasti yesham yasha kaye jaramaranajam bhayam
An artist who is accomplished in Rasa (crudely translated, it means aesthetics) stands forever victorious
His body verily the embodiment of success needs no fear
Of old age and death.
I plan to write some select verses–those that appeal to me most–from the Neeti and Vairagya Shatakas in the next part.