Bhartruhari: King, Poet and Sage Par Excellence

Those familiar with Sanskrit–even an introductory course is sufficient–are sure to know Bhartruhari mainly via reading several Subashitaas (noble sayings in verse form). Indeed, almost every other verse by Bhartruhari is a Subashitaa.

A King of Ujjain, Bhartruhari was the elder step brother of his more renowned sibling, Vikramaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving emperor who had everything at his disposal to a sage who gave us the immortal Shataka trilogy.

Bhartruhari was fiercely enamoured of his newly-wedded wife Pingala, a fact which caused Vikramaditya considerable anguish for the elder brother neglected his kingly duties preferring to spend his life in her arms. Pingala on her part conspired and had Vikramaditya thrown out of Ujjain.

A Brahmin once gave Bhartruhari a fruit that when eaten would increase the king’s lifespan. An infatuated Bhartruhari handed the fruit to his wife. Pingala in turn, preferred the intimate company of the chief horse-keeper to whom she gave the fruit. The horse-keeper was in love with a prostitute. In the end, the fruit found itself in the prostitute’s hands. To me, the prostitute emerges as a stellar character in this whole episode. She sensed the importance of the fruit, and found it fit to give it to the king whom she believed was a wise and just ruler barring his wifely obsession of course.

Bharturhari was counselling with his nobles when the prostitute praised the greatness of the fruit, told him she was unfit of such a lofty gift and gifted it to him. He ate the fruit and in a flash realized that it was the very fruit that he had lovingly gifted to Pingala. This singular incident made him realize the worthlessness of it all. He turned his back on worldly life and took to renunciation. The Niti Shataka has an extremely poignant verse that describes this state of Bhartruhari:
Yaam chintayaami satatam mayi saa viraktaa
Saapyanyamicchati janam sa janonyasaktah
Asmatkrute ca parishushyati kaachidanyaa
Dhik taam ca tam ca madanam ca imaam ca maam ca

(A very crude translation follows)
The One upon whom I meditate perpetually is detached from me but
(She) desires another and the Other (desires) yet another
Thus it goes always, this desire to always desire another
Fie on her, on him, on Madana (God of Love), on all this and fie on me too!

From King Bhartruhari, he became an ascetic, a tapasvi (the literal meaning of tapas is “to burn”) and from the ashes he burnt his passions into arose the immortal Shatakatraya: the Neeti, Shringara, and Vairagya Shatakas.

The Shringara Shataka deals mainly with various facets of erotic love; it goes to great lengths to describe nuances of feminine allurement, their behaviour in various stages of sensual arousal, and suchlike. Here’s a sample:
Prangma meti manaaganaagatrasam jaatabhilaasham tatah
Sabriyam tadanu shlathodyatamanupradhvastadhairyam punah
Premardra saprihniyanirbharah kridapragalbham tato
Ni shankaangvikarshnaadiksukham ramyam kulstree ratam

(My somewhat-liberal translation)
Noble women repulse sexual advances when dormant lies Desire
As Desire grows they loosen their limbs, shyness comes to the fore, they yawn repeatedly
Patience receding, they submit to the will of the partner, the noble women
At this critical pass,
Enjoy stroking, caressing, fondling, kissing and all other foreplay.

The reason Bhartruhari took time and effort to pen some absolutely erotic verses has its roots in the Indian conception of asethetics. A king himself who had enjoyed every kind of sensual pleasure, Bhartruhari took care not to trivialize any aspect of life and experience including the sensual. Indian art experience viewed as a whole is all-inclusive: nothing is shun-worthy. The end of sense-pleasure as various schools of philosophy state is self-realization, which is the end Shringara Shataka has in mind. As this verse testifies:
Dhaanyaasta aiv tarlaayatlochanaanaam
Taarunyarupdhana peenpayodharaanaam
Kshaamodaroparilasattrivali leeltaanaam
Drishtaakritim vikritimeti mano na yeshaam

(Crude translation follows)
Those alone are fortunate whose mind
Is not consumed by weakness to cast their eyes
On a pretty young damsel whose eyes twitter incessantly
(Who) is endowed with well-developed breasts and an alluring figure

And in the Vairagya Shataka he says there are only two ways one can live: indulge or take to asceticism. While this might seem extreme, Bhartruhari underscores the essential futility of trying simultaneously to indulge in relentless pleasure and desire eternal peace.
agre gitam sarasakavayaH paarshvayordakshiiNaatyaaH
pashchaalliilaavalayaraNita.n chaamaragraahiNiinaam.h .
yadyastveva.n kuru bhavarasaasvaadane lampaTatva.n
no chechchetaH pravisha sahasaa nirvikalpe samaadhau

If there be music playing in front of you, by your side expert poets from the South,
and behind you the courtesans waving fans and shaking their bracelets with a clinking
sound, then indulge unstintingly in these worldly pleasures. If not, O Mind! enter
the realm of beatitude devoid of all thoughts.

Bhartruhari’s trilogy encompasses almost every experience known to man and pours them forth in beautiful poetry. It provides philosophy to those interested in it, metrical delight to those who revel in it, morality to those who seek it… everybody unfailingly gains from it depending on what they look for. Ultimately, Bhartruhari’s name stands firm to this hour owing to this. His own verse, which soulfully describes the eternity of a true artist equally apply to him:
Jayanti te sukrrutino rasasidhdha kavishvaraha
Naasti yesham yasha kaye jaramaranajam bhayam

An artist who is accomplished in Rasa (crudely translated, it means aesthetics) stands forever victorious
His body verily the embodiment of success needs no fear
Of old age and death.

I plan to write some select verses–those that appeal to me most–from the Neeti and Vairagya Shatakas in the next part.

47 comments for “Bhartruhari: King, Poet and Sage Par Excellence

  1. October 21, 2014 at 1:12 PM the other lines of this verse:”Diva kaakaruta bheeta, ratrow tapati Narmada—–“. who said these and when

  2. February 15, 2014 at 4:59 AM

    Is this the bharthrihari who developed sphota theory in linguistics?

    • premanand
      February 25, 2014 at 2:17 AM

      Yes Navan..You are right he is the same who developed Sphota theory of Linguistics..

  3. Eramangalath Asokan
    January 24, 2014 at 10:43 AM

    I refer to the “Puranic encyclopaedia” in Malayalam, by Mr.”Vettathu Mani” who conducted research on all characters of all Hindu Puranas about the origin of the Poet-King- Sage, Bhartruhari.
    A Brahman boy, ‘Vidyasagar’ by name was in search of knowledge beyond what he learned from many eminent Gurus. He met a ‘Brahmarakshas’ on a banyan tree under the shade of which he was resting. This Brahmarakshas advised him that he could impart more knowledge on condition that for six months Vidyasagar should not take food. A special Manthram (recitation) was given to him for this purpose. After six months Vidyasagar was satisfied and the Brhmarakshas left for his abode in heaven. The effect of the Manthram was over and Vidyasagar suddenly felt hugnry and sleepy. He slept at the gate of a Sudra family. One girl Mandakini belonging to the household saw the Brahman and she took him home and gave shelter. When he woke up he was given food and necessary treatments. Mandakini insisted that Vidyasagar should accept her as his wife. But the Brahman refused and she approached the Kaling King with a serious complasint on the matter. The King declared that Vidyasagar first marry a Brahman girl, then a Kshatriya girl and a Vaisya girl and as the fourth wife marry Mandakini as was the custom in those days in the country. The King was pleased with Vidyasagar for his scholastic abilities and offered his daughter in marriage to him. He also arranged other gir;ls for him. Four sons were born to Vidyasagar in these four wives and they were ‘Vararuchi’, the Brahman, Vikramaditrya, the Kshatriya, Bhatti, the Vaisya and Bhartruhari, the Sudra.When he reached old age the King installed Vidyasagar as King and Bhartruhari followed as next king. Bhartruhari had three wives. The third wife was his most favourite one. He was given a fruit by a Rishi to retain his youth for ever. Bhartruhari gave the fruit to his third wife who gave it to her Paramour, a horse attender of the palace, who promptly gave to his wife. Bhartruhari saw the fruit in her hand when she was going out from the palace with a basketful of horse dung and on detailed investigation came to know that he wife was in love with the horse attender. Dejected by this situation Bhartruhari left the palace and spent his life in a temple in another land (they say at Chidambaram). Here sitting as a beggar he wrote many Sanskrit works, He wrote a book of grammer, Neeti, Subhashitam, Sringarasatakam, Vairagyasatakam etc.

  4. Sheetal More
    January 14, 2014 at 11:31 AM

    Really thanks for Information i am sanskrit student so it’s help me lot for making project on “BHARTRUHARI”.

    • April 12, 2014 at 5:57 PM

      After writing the above story I read two translations of the satakatrayam by Bhartruhari. One is by Mr. P.Gopinath (Nag Publishers and the other bydadan Upadhyaya(Choukhamba Surabharati Prakasan.According to these books tere are many different originds of Bhartruhari. He was of royal origin and became a Tapasi after some strong incident in his life.However his works are related to Vedanta philosophy. He was one of the nine jwels in the assembly of Vikramaditya. These nine are 1.Dhanvantari
      Thus Bhartruhari was a contemporary of Kalidasa. Although there are many legends about the oriigin The last phase of his life is same in all cases and this is proved by the second sloka in his Nitsatakam, namely, “Yam chintayaAmi satatam Mayi saa virakta,Saapyanyamichhati Janam Sa jano Anyasaktaha.Asmat kritecha Pritushyati Kaachidanya, Dhiktaamcha, tamcha, Madanam cha, emaacha, maamcha ( Note the geeti kavya style of his poems. He is a great poet (Mahakavi and his poems are quoted in many works after him, they say.I here quote the additional portion of my story after reading the above books.
      P.Gopinath in the book “Three Satakam”, mentions that Bhartruhari and Vikrama were the grandsons of the chief of “Dhara”, a King of Malwa in Rajasthan The chief took pains to educate them in various sciences, Arts like Music and Dance, Ethics and religion etc. Dhara was the capital of the country of Malwa in Rajasthan. The chief asked Vikrama to take over the kingdom after him. But Vikrama said that the elder brother should rule. Bhartruhari became the King of Malwa. Bhartruhari had three hundred wives. The youngest was ‘Pingala” (also known as Rani, Bhanumati, Padmakshi, Anangasena) He was so attached to Pingala that he neglected his kingly duties and Vikrama was so sad that he left for Ujjain due to Pingala’s palace intrigues.

      According to Todd’s ‘Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan’, the King went for hunting in the forest. One shikkari in his troupe shot a buck and the female bird came to the dead husband threw herself in his pyre. This dramatic incident was told to the queen but she did not show any surprise. “It is as it should be, any true wife will do the same under the circumstances. So, the king to test her , when he went for hunting next time sent through a messenger the blood soaked cloth and passed a false message that the king was killed by a tiger. Pingala made a funeral pyre to burn the cloth and jumped into it. The King became so sad that he gave up the kingdom to Vikram and left for the forest. Vikram changed the Capital from Dhara to Ujjain. Bhartruhari met one Yogi, called Gorakshanath who initiated him into the secrets of mysticism. He wrote “Vairagyasatakam” after the incident. There is another story saying that Pingala proved herself unfaithful to him and the king gave up his kingdom and became a mendicant. This book also mentions that according to one Seshagiri sastry, Vikramaditya was the son of a Brahman called Chandragupta who took four wives, one each from the four castes, Brahmana, Kshtriya, Vaisya and Sudra. He had one son in each of these wives, namely, Vararuchi, the Brahman, Vikramaditua, the Kshatriya, Bhatti, the Vysya and Bhartruhari, the Sudra.
      Professor Tawney in a foot note to the word Parijan in Vairagyasatakam, thinks that this expression falls in which the legend that Bhartruhari was a king and quitted his kingdom in a fit of diguest.
      Mr Talang says that Vikrama, the founder of Samvat Era flourished around 56 B.C.According to another legend, Bhartruhari’s mother was one Susheela Dei, the only child, daughter of the king of Jambudweep. The king installed Bhartruhari as his successor. Vikram was the second son.
      Eramangalath Asokan

  5. September 2, 2013 at 11:34 PM

    as per chinese records, Bhartrihari died in 650 A.D. then how he could be related with king Vikramaditya

    • premanand
      February 7, 2014 at 8:07 AM

      Don’t know about Chinese Record but as per Indian record Bhatruhari was the elder brother of Vikramaditya. In indian history there are more than one Vikramaditya ex: Chandragupta the second also known as Vikramaditya who ruled during 375-415 CE. So Please don’t be confused…

  6. suma
    August 30, 2013 at 12:28 PM

    I WANT MEANING OF these words Jayanthite sukrrutino rasasidha kavishvaraha
    Naasti yesham yasha kaye jaramaranajam bhayam

    • premanand
      February 7, 2014 at 8:20 AM

      May be Replying very lately but it may help others too…

      A poet who has profound knowledge of the Rasa’s is always victorious. His body, the embodiment of success does not need to fear old age and death.

  7. Maitrayee
    May 28, 2013 at 6:16 PM

    Today i saw Bhartuhari’s episod in “Upnishad Ganga”,nice to see the transformation in his life….commendable. We only new aboout more famous King Vikramaditya only. Thanks for all the posts.

  8. premanand prasad panigrahy
    October 31, 2012 at 3:09 AM

    Dear Sandeep,
    I have read a different story about Bhatruhari. You written that Queen Pingala conspired and had Vikramaditya thrown out of Ujjain. You wrote: Pibgala gave the fruit to Horse Keeper.

    But as per My knowledge “Pingala was the second queen of King Bhatruhari. After losing his first wife king bhatruhari roaming in forest where he heard a lady’s voice shouting for help and before he can do anything his senapati who was following him secretly jumped into the river and saved the lady. Bhatruhari pleased with the beauty of the lady and married her whose name was PINGALA. He loved her too much that he gifted her one Sringara item everyday with a poem written on the sringara item, the 100 poems from those gifted Sringara item is known as ‘Sringara Satakam’. When the saint gifted the fruit known as ‘Amritphal’ he gave it to her loving wife who thought that what she will do with long-life without his king so she gifted the fruit to the Senapati who saved her life as his prize for saving her. The senapati gifted the fruit to the Raja-Nartaki or kings dancer whom he loved. The Raja-nartaki thought that the king is the only person who deserves it so she gave the fruit to the king.

    As the king got the fruit from Raja-Nartaki he doubted the character of Rani Pingala and left his kingdom in search of universal truth. Later after days he got the divine knowledge and returned to his kingdom and found that his kingdom is under attack. He collected some fighters from outside while King Vikramaditya fought from inside and they won the war. The king then asked the Raja-Nartakin and then the Senapati about how they got the fruit and got the whole picture. When he tried to findout where Rani PINGALA is? Meanwhile Pingala became Vairagya and left the kingdom and become a Sanyasini. When Bhatruhari approached her and asked to return she told him “Maharaj’ till date you havn’t got the true divine knowledge”. Raja Bhatruhari become a Sanyasi too. Here the question arises what happened to the ‘AMRIT PHAL’. Bhatruhari offer the Amritphal in a Yajna Kunda as haviryajnas when he got the divine knowledge for wellness of the humankind before his returning to his Kingdom”.

  9. sreelatha
    April 26, 2012 at 9:21 AM

    iam glad to say that i got the meaning of JAYANTI TE SUKRITINO………. verse’s meaning. nice blog.

  10. ava
    February 18, 2012 at 6:41 PM

    Yes please write more about people like Bhartruhari….I also learned about Bhyrappa through this blog…

  11. srivatsan
    February 17, 2012 at 10:26 PM

    your writing on Bhartruhari is wonderful and lucid..hope to find more info in your page in future

  12. Shravan
    December 9, 2011 at 1:30 PM

    Aarambhimparu neechamaanavulu vighnayaasa santrastulai
    Aarambhimchi parityajinturu vighnayattulai madhamul
    Dheerul Vighna nihanya maanulaguchun dhrutyunnatotsahulai
    Praarabdhartamulujjagimparu sumi pragnanidhul gaavunan

  13. Janak Kaviratna
    October 14, 2011 at 11:46 AM

    Can anyone suggest a book on king Bhartrihari (English or HIndi)which gives complet account of his life?

  14. Rammohan
    June 17, 2011 at 7:50 PM

    Vijayshankar – Could I seek your help gettitng access to the Sanskrit sites that you have mentioned in your post.

  15. vijayashankar
    January 13, 2011 at 2:46 PM

    @psecular, for your information the sanskrit documents are availablae at this site, almost all in sanskrit literature are documented in various formats

    in case you need more info I can give the links for many other sites which I got in the samskrutha mEla at bengaluru.

  16. vijayashankar
    January 5, 2011 at 4:50 PM

    I do not know whether this can be done. But there is going to be an exhibi tion of sanskrit books in Bangalore at National college grounds. I think it starts on 7th jan 2011. all types of sanskrit books in original and translations in various languages are going to be made available as per announcement. there will be books in devanaagari script and other language scripts also.

  17. psecular
    January 4, 2011 at 2:57 PM


    can we digiize the copy and make it available for every one ?. 1912 is old enough for copyrights to expire.

  18. vijayashankar
    January 3, 2011 at 8:45 PM

    though the blog was written some 4 years back visitors are still responding. It shows how popular ths blog and the subjects you chose are.
    coming to bhartruhari and his trishatakas it is difficult to find an alternative writing. fortunately I have an original book printed in 1912 with word by word meaning and summary of all the three shatakas, It is in kannada and it was published by krishnaiah shetty of chikpet bengaluru. and cost my grandfather 12 annas then.

  19. Venkatarama Krishnan
    December 29, 2010 at 4:58 AM

    I will answer Mohan’s question regarding, “Srotram….”. Yes indeed it is from Bhartruhari’s Subhashitas occuring at sloka 62 in Neethisataka.

  20. kiran
    December 16, 2010 at 7:24 PM

    I am very glad i chanced upon this post. While accidentally flipping through the channels I came across sanskrit teaching in DD and went by memory lane to my younger days when dad use to teach me sanskrit grammar. still remember quite a bit of it and wanted to refresh my memories of bhartruhari poems. would love to read more and implement the neeti satakas in my life.

    Long live Sanskrit!!

  21. VaSu
    October 7, 2010 at 3:54 AM

    there are some more words in the poem “arambhimparu….” at the end

    …………………………………. prajna nidhul kavunan

  22. October 4, 2010 at 5:08 AM

    I wish to learn more and interact with learned minds, through this forum.
    Whoever started it, may God bless you! Keep it up, my dear friend.

  23. October 4, 2010 at 5:05 AM

    I am an ardent student of Bhartruhari, who wishes to know more about this ascetic-poet.
    As a schoolboy (over 50 years ago), I studied a Subhashitani–given below. Could someone please confirm if this is also from Bhartruhari?

    Srotram shrutenaiva na tu kundalena,
    Danena paninih na tu kankanena;
    Vibhati kayaha karunaaparaanam,
    Paropakaarena na tu chandanena.

  24. Anon
    July 14, 2010 at 12:03 PM

    Well written. Take some time out to dwell on Shringara Shataka as well :)

  25. Dr.Gour Mohanty
    April 20, 2010 at 7:53 AM

    Bhartrihari is immortal for his Shatakatrayees e:g:Shringara,Vairagya and Nitee , there seems to be another titled Vigyana Shataka ,perhaps his most mature work that followed the Nitee Shataka considered by many as the last one he composed after he had Realisation .
    However the English rendering of Vigyana Shataka has not been found by me .
    Sri Ramakrishna Mission have published a prose translation of the Vairagya Shataka and Sri Aurobindo made a beautiful poetic rendering of the Nitee Shataka as The Century of Life .

  26. March 12, 2010 at 8:34 AM

    I am completely impressed by such an insightful review. Keep posting more often.

    One of your commenters question was to post a telugu poem. Infact, every piece of Bhartruhari shatka tryam has bee translated into Telugu by one SrI. Lakshmana kavi. He is not acknowledged enough in literature and all his works go by the name Bhartruhari subhshitalu. The poem your commenter asked goes as follows:

    aarambhimparu neecha maanavulu vighnayasa santrastulai
    aarambhinchi parithyajintururu, vighna yattulai madhyamul
    dheerul vighna nihanya maanulaguchun dhrtyunnatotsahulai
    prarabdharthamulu ujjagimpuru sumi

    Liberal translation:
    Thinking of the obstacles a task is going to offer, some people donot even begin it. These are cowards. The mediocre people start things, proceed a bit and give up conceding their defeat to the obstacles. The valiant however, bathe through all the obstacles with extreme enthusiasm to take up challenges

  27. ashok
    December 8, 2009 at 9:01 PM

    Can I have translation of Sa ramya nagri?

  28. indra
    September 7, 2009 at 7:33 PM

    Could you please give me the text and translation of Padmakaram Dinakaram Vikacham karoti,
    Chandro vikaasayati kairava chakravaalam
    Naabhyarthito jala dharopi jalam dadaati
    Santi santaha Parahite’ vihitaabhi yogah.

  29. larissa
    July 21, 2009 at 11:40 PM

    Also gazals (in my understanding) are symptomatic of a soceity (Islamic) in which people had little control over their lives and so love is always unattainable and mostly unrequited.
    Hindu romantic aesthetics is so different as displayed in our romantic literature of old–it is always infused with higher ideals even when it is the most sensual…

  30. larissa
    July 21, 2009 at 11:22 PM

    I mean to say how different these poems are from gazals which mostly are about forbidden and unattainable love, and precisely for these reasons I find uninteresting and uninspiring… (My husband says this is not Hindu and that the Hindu way is if you like someone forbidden you elope)–You never quite tame that which is never realized–but here the poet transcends the sensual route by actually experiencing its limitations–aesthitically is typically Hindu in this respect…

  31. larissa
    July 21, 2009 at 9:19 PM

    This is such a nice post! Glad someone brought it up so I was able to read it.
    The poems are beautiful and witty. Far more to my taste than gazals (which I cannot bear) and which are not Hindu aesthetically speaking…

  32. Sandeep
    July 21, 2009 at 7:39 PM


    No, I don’t have them.

  33. Eshwar
    July 21, 2009 at 12:50 PM

    Dear Sandeep,
    Can u please send me soft copies of Shataktray, if available with u.
    Thanks in advance..

  34. Sandeep
    June 30, 2009 at 2:22 AM


    I have no idea what you’re talking about. Bhartrhari wrote in Sanskrit.

  35. June 29, 2009 at 11:41 AM

    Hi, Sandeep
    I want one poem namely “Arambhimparu neechamanavulu” written by Bartruhari.
    If it is available in telugu pl provide.
    Thanks & Regargs,

  36. Harshada
    February 22, 2008 at 10:02 PM

    Dear Vaijayanti,
    here is the verse which you require. it has been taken from vairagyashatakam.
    ‘sa ramya nagari mahan sa nrupati: samantachakram cha tat
    parshve tasya cha sa vidagdhaparishad tashchandrabimbanana:|
    udvrutta: sa cha rajaputranivaha: te bandinasta: katha:
    sarvam yasya vashadagat smrutipatham kalay tasmai nama:||’

  37. vaijayanti
    February 9, 2008 at 7:50 PM

    dear sandeep: i wish to have the complete verse of bhartruhari which ends with kalaay tasmai namaha” may i get it?
    seraching on net doesnt bring results

  38. alpavidya
    July 1, 2006 at 6:30 PM

    While translations are helpful to people like me who only have very limited exposure to samskrita, I most enjoyed what was explained to me during the school days.

    I feel a literal translation will help in getting the meaning of the words and then when we re-read the orginal, we can enjoy it better.

  39. Sandeep
    April 6, 2006 at 11:14 AM


    Thanks. We do have translations aplenty but I’m yet to read one which captures the essence of the original. Which is why I choose not to recommend any. Hmm… let me see if I can do a verse or two a day and publish it on my blog.

  40. Jaffna
    April 6, 2006 at 10:38 AM


    Good post. And so true! Is there a good English language translation of Bhrtrihari’s Subashitaas and Niti Shataka. I would like to buy the publications.

    Best regards

  41. froginthewell
    March 25, 2006 at 5:15 AM

    Sandeep, thanks. As for manAganAgatarasam I thought it was “manAk + anAgata + rasam”, where manAk qualifies the “Eti”? Sorry I confused it to and read extra two syllables – as “manAk amanAgatarasam”.

    Also – can you delete two of my comments – I thought they weren’t posted because I got an error message when I tried to post.

  42. Sandeep
    March 24, 2006 at 10:44 AM


    it is indeed prAk+mAm+Eti. The other, manaaganaagatrasam is a separate word. Is that what you mean?

  43. froginthewell
    March 23, 2006 at 9:03 PM

    Sorry for the delayed comment. And this is a rambling one.

    I suppose his relation to Vikramaditya, the story of Pingala and his authorship of subhAShitas ( except the ones from the shatakas ) are only things we hear as legend and not historical facts?

    I am slightly puzzled with the “prAngmAmEti” – is it prAk + mAm + Eti + manAk + a-mana-Agata-rasam?

    While I am not a big fan of shRngAra shataka ( how can it compare with verses of amaru? But the sheer force of his pen in nIti shataka and vairAgya shataka – the scathing attack on human weaknesses – the powerful deployment of words that straight away pierces the heart – seems much better literature than the contrived work of kAlidAsa.

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